Cell Signaling

Cellular signaling allows cells to respond to their environment and communicate with other cells. Proteins located on the cell surface can receive signals from their surroundings and transmit information into the cell via a series of receptors, kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins that include signaling pathways. Multicellular organisms rely on an extensive array of signaling pathways to coordinate the proper growth, regulation, and function of cells and tissues. If signaling between or within cells is dysregulated, inappropriate cellular responses may lead to cancer and other diseases.

Many tools have been developed to measure cellular responses occurring through a wide range of signaling pathways. As an example, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling can be studied using assays ranging from calcium flux, which can be monitored using fluorescence dyes, to changes in downstream effector molecules assessed by TR-FRET.